Rapeseed meal is nothing but a finely powdered substance obtained as a bi-product when rapeseed is processed for oil. The meal is a major supplement of protein (minimum 36-38% of protein by weight) only next to soybean and is known to be the cheaper of the two options. It also contains a very low amount of glucosinolates, which cause a metabolism disruption in cattle and pigs.
Rapeseed ‘oil cake’ is also used as a fertilizer in China and even for ornamentals such as Bonsai. It contains high sources of nitrogen and phosphorous and is even an essential source of vitamins (B and E), minerals, amino acids (methionine and lysine), and fiber (13%).
It is used for feeding mostly cattle (both ruminant and non-ruminant), pigs, and chickens in many countries, including India. Indian rapeseed meal is produced for both local markets and even export purposes. The major origin places in India include; Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, West Bengal, Gujarat, Jammu, and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh & Orissa. India exports the product (nearly 1.2 Million MT every year) mainly to countries such as; Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Middle East. The rape meal is cultivated and used in various countries such as; Australia, Canada, China, the United States, and Europe.
Soya Bean Meal being one of the best vegetable protein sources in the world is basically one of the by-products obtained from the extraction of Soya bean oil. As per difference extraction procedures, it is classified into two main categories: Hi-protein or Hipro Soya Bean Meal (consisting of 47-49% protein and 3% crude fiber) obtained from de-hulled seeds and the regular or conventional Soya meal (consisting of 43-44% protein) with hulls.
Hipro Soybean meal contains a better concentration of protein than probably regular soybean meal because the hulls present in conventional meal standardize the Crude Protein level to range between 46-48%. However, the Crude Protein in De-hulled Soybean Meal ranges from 48% onwards. It has a higher energy value as compared to other protein sources as 95% of nitrogen present is actually a true protein. The solubility index of the soya meals is 80-85% and the amino acids are better digested than most other protein sources of plant origin. It also has a better amino acid profile and low fiber percentage than probably normal soybean meal and is used generally for aqua and poultry feeds. The Hipro Soya bean meal is also a good source of phosphorous, iron, vitamin, and minerals and a widely accepted replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture diets.
Soybean Doc or meal is a byproduct of a residual substance obtained by the grinding of soybean for extracting oil. The meal is widely used as a protein supplement and filler in animal diets namely; horse, sheep, cattle, pigs, fish, and chicken. The Soya Bean De-Oiled Cakes are rich in natural nutrients and are used widely for feeding purposes. There are basically two categories of Soya meals or DOC: the Hipro (high-protein 50+) soya meal and the regular soya meal (with less protein content than the former 46+).
Groundnut Doc or meal is nothing but a byproduct obtained when groundnut seeds are processed for oil. Although they are mostly used for poultry and aqua feeds, they can quite easily serve as a supplement for all sorts of livestock. Groundnut meal stands 6th in the list of most common oil meals in the world after; soybean meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, and palm kernel meal. The meal is considered a top-quality feed because of its rich protein and low fiber content and serves as the perfect alternative (for a high-protein source) to soybean meal where the latter is too expensive or just plain unavailable.
India and China are the top groundnut-producing nations in Asia followed by a string of other countries such as; Indonesia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Africa, the USA, Argentina, Brazil, and Europe are also important Ground nut-producing countries in the world map.